Scientific research now shows the many health benefits of CBD Cannabidiol. Cannabidiol is a component of the cannabis or hemp plant but it does not produce the psychoactive effects that have made marijuana attractive for recreational use. CBD benefits are real because CBD produces strong medicinal and therapeutic effects for even the most common conditions.

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Cancer

Cancer.gov—Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)

Cannabinoids may cause anti-tumor effects by various mechanisms, including induction of cell death, inhibition of cell growth, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis invasion and metastasis. One review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of action of cannabinoids as anti-tumor agents. Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. These compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in glioma cells in culture and induce regression of glioma tumors in mice and rats. Cannabinoids protect normal glial cells of astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages from apoptosis mediated by the CB1 receptor.

San Francisco Chronicle—Pot compound seen as tool against cancer

When McAllister and Desprez exposed the cells to can- nabidiol in a petri dish, the cells not only stopped acting  “crazy” but they also started to revert to a normal state. Both scientists were shocked. […]What they found is that the cannabinoid turns off the over expression of ID-1, which makes the cells lose their ability to travel to distant tissues. In other words, it keeps the cells more local and blocks their ability to metastasize. Cancer kills through its ability to metastasize.

University of South Carolina School of Medicine—Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells: A novel role of cannabidiol in the regulation of p22phox and Nox4 expression.

The role of the mitochondria was further suggested as exposure to cannabidiol led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c. It is noteworthy that cannabidiol exposure led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as an increase in the expression of the NAD(P)H oxidases Nox4 and p22(phox). Furthermore, cannabidiol-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels could be blocked by treatment with the ROS scavengers or the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. Finally, cannabidiol exposure led to a decrease in the levels of p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which could be blocked by treatment with a CB2-selective antagonist or ROS scavenger. Together, the results from this study reveal that cannabidiol, acting through CB2 and regulation of Nox4 and p22(phox) expression,may be a novel and highly selective treatment for leukemia.

University of Milan—Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.

Indeed, cannabinoids possess anti-proliferative and pro- apoptotic effects and they are known to interfere with tumour neovascularization, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion and metastasization. However, the clinical use of Δ(9)-THC and additional cannabinoid agonists is often limited by their unwanted psychoactive side effects, and for this reason interest in non-psychoactive cannabinoid compounds with structural affinity for Δ(9)-THC, such as cannabidiol (CBD), has substantially increased in recent years.

Dementia & Alzheimer’s

The Border Mail—Cannabis may help reverse dementia: study

A team from Neuroscience Research Australia is in the early stages of research examining if one of the main active ingredients in cannabis, called cannabidiol, could reverse some of the symptoms of memory loss in animals. Tim Karl, a senior research fellow with the group, said cannabidiol does not have the same psychoactive ef- fects as the main component of marijuana, THC, but it has been found to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and other effects that could be beneficial for the brain. […]

The cell research, done at the University of Wollongong, found treating the cells with cannabidiol also reduced the amount of the harmful protein that they produced.

Dr Karl said there had been case reports in medical literature of marijuana smokers who had developed Alzheimer’s disease, only to find their smoking seemed to relieve some of their symptoms.

“Most of the components [of marijuana] are detrimental, they worsen your cognitive performance and have psychoactive effects… cannabidiol seems to not have any of these negative effects,” he said.

Collective Evolution—New Study Shows Cannabinoids Improve Efficiency Of Mitochondria And Remove Dam- aged Brain Cells32

A recent study conducted by Andras Biokei-Gorzo at the Institute of Molecular Psychiatry at the University of Bonn in Germany is suggesting that marijuana(or the activation of the brain’s cannabinoid system) triggers the release of antioxidants, which act as a cleansing mechanism. This process is known to remove damaged cells and improve the efficiency of mitochondria. Mitochondria is the energy source that powers cells. The study was published in Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society, B. You can read the entire study here.

Israel National News—Israeli Research Shows Cannabidiol May Slow Alzheimer’s Disease

The research, still at an early stage, indicates that memory loss, the first and primary symptom of Alzheimer’s disease, can be slowed down significantly in mice by cannabidiol. […]In the study conducted by Professor Raphael Mechoulam and a team led by Dr. Maria de Ceballos at the Cajal Institute in Madrid, Spain, mice were injected with a molecule found in the brain of humans suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, and then treated for one week with cannabidiol. […] Mechoulam presented the findings this week at the Cannabis Medicines Symposium in London, hosted by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) and said that human trials will hopefully follow in the near future. […] Mechoulam was the first scientist to isolate the THC component of cannabis and later discovered the first endo-cannabinoid.

Seizures & Epilepsy

CNN—Medical marijuana helps stem 6-year-old’s seizures28

The liquid, nonpsychoactive form of marijuana that Jayden takes ensures the boy doesn’t get “high.” In a laboratory, the marijuana is distilled down to mostly cannabidiols, which advocates say is the potent medicinal value of the drug.

Seizure—Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures

Cannabis sativa has been associated with contradictory effects upon seizure states despite its medicinal use by numerous people with epilepsy. We have recently shown that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) reduces seizure severity and lethality in the well-established in vivo model of pentylenetetrazole induced generalised seizures, suggesting that earlier, small-scale clinical trials examining CBD effects in people with epilepsy warrant renewed attention. Here, we report the effects of pure CBD (1, 10 and 100 mg/kg) in two other established rodent seizure models, the acute pilocarpine model of temporal lobe seizure and the penicillin model of partial seizure. Seizure activity was video recorded and scored offline using model-specific seizure severity scales. In the pilocarpine model CBD (all doses) significantly reduced the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe seizures. In the penicillin model, CBD (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the percentage mortality as a result of seizures; CBD (all doses) also decreased the percentage of animals experiencing the most severe tonic–clonic seizures. These results extend the anticonvulsant profile of CBD; when combined with a reported absence of psychoactive effects, this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies.

Pharmacology—Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients30

In phase 1 of the study, 3 mg/kg daily of cannabidiol (CBD) was given for 30 days to 8 health human volunteers. Another 8 volunteers received the same number of identical capsules containing glucose as placebo in a double- blind setting. Neurological and physical examinations, blood and urine analysis, ECG and EEG were performed at weekly intervals. In phase 2 of the study, 15 patients suffering from secondary generalized epilepsy with temporal focus were randomly divided into two groups. Each patient received, in a double-blind procedure, 200-300 mg daily of CBD or placebo. The drugs were administered for along as 4 1/2 months. Clinical and laboratory examinations, EEG and ECG were performed at 15- or 30-day intervals. Throughout the experiment the patients continued to take the antiepileptic drugs prescribed before the experiment, although these drugs no longer controlled the signs of the disease. All patients and volunteers tolerated CBD very well and no signs of toxicity or serious side effects were detected on examination. 4 of the 8 CBD subjects remained almost free of convulsive crises throughout the experiment and 3 other patients demonstrated partial improvement in their clinical condition. CBD was ineffective in 1 patient. The clinical condition of 7 placebo patients remained unchanged whereas the condition of 1 patient clearly improved. The potential use of CBD as an antiepileptic drug and its possible potentiating effect on other antiepileptic drugs are discussed.

Drug Withdrawl

Addictive Behaviors—Cannabidiol Reduces Cigarette Consumption In Tobacco Smokers

The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine ad- diction is being increasingly acknowledged. From the University College in London, this study published in the September 2012 issue of “Addictive Behavior” found that cannabidiol (CBD) reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers.

The American Journal on Addictions—Impact of Cannabis Use during Stabilization on Methadone Maintenance

Treatment

A new study conducted by researchers at the Farber Institute for Neurosciences at Thomas Jefferson University, located in Philadelphia have determined through the close observation of 90+ opiate dependent individuals, that marijuana greatly reduces withdrawal symptoms in addicts undergoing methadone treatment. Concluding that, “the present findings may point to a novel intervention to be employed during treatment for opiate dependencies that specifically targets cannabinoid–opiate system interactions.”

When asked to rate their withdraw discomfort level on the clinical opiate withdrawal scale, most recovering addicts found increased marijuana consumption reduced the level of discomfort associated with a painful process of opiate withdrawal. Leading scientists involved in this research to surmise, “these results suggested a potential role for cannabis and reduction of withdrawal severity during methadone induction.”

Mount Sinai School of Medicine—Cannabidiol as Treatment Intervention for Opioid Relapse (Medical Research Study)

Using a strategy of indirectly regulating neural systems to modulate opioid-related behavior, our preclinical rodent studies consistently demonstrated that cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive component of cannabis, specifically inhibited cue-induced heroin-seeking behavior. CBD’s selective effect on drug-seeking behavior was pronounced after 24 hrs and endured even two weeks after the last drug administration following short-term CBD expo- sure. The fact that drug craving is generally triggered by exposure to conditioned cues suggests that CBD might be an effective treatment for heroin craving, especially given its protracted impact on behavior. CBD has already been shown in Phase I of our study and in various clinical studies to be well tolerated with a wide safety margin in human subjects. CBD thus represents a strong candidate for the development as a potential therapeutic agent in humans for opioid craving and relapse prevention.

Autism

Stanford University via The Scientist—A Link Between Autism and Cannabinoids,37 Neuron—Autism-Associated Neuroligin-3 Mutations Commonly Disrupt Tonic Endocan- nabinoid Signaling.

A new study shows that mutations associated with autism block the action of brain molecules that act on the same receptors that marijuana’s active chemical acts on. […] Two autism-related mutations in a synapse-adhesion protein lead to deficits in prolonged endocannabinoid signaling in mice. It’s a surprising connection that suggests such signalling problems could be implicated in autism spectrum disorders…

Tonic endocannabinoid signalling is long-lasting and contrasts with the brief pulses characteristic of phasic signalling. Endocannabinoid signalling in general affects memory formation, learning, pain, and other important processes, but the distinctions between tonic and phasic signalling have been poorly understood.

“It’s a very stimulating finding which could be a real turning point in understanding tonic endocannabinoids and how this otherwise mysterious lipid signalling really works,” said Bradley Alger, a neuroscientist at the University of Maryland School of Medicine who was not involved in the study.

ABC News—Mother Gives Son Marijuana to Treat His Autism

“I’m not aware of any research on the efficacy of marijuana on the treatment of autism,” said Stephen M. Edelson, director of the Autism Research Institute, which collects information from parents on alternative treatments they try. “That doesn’t mean it doesn’t work, it just means there’s not scientific documentation that it does work.” […]

“As far as research, no there isn’t and I would think there should be,” said Edelson. “That could be one of the few options to treat children who have these very severe behaviors.”

Parents of some autistic children report that cannabis eases behavioral problems more effectively than conventional pharmaceuticals. Their anecdotal evidence should be taken seriously by medical researchers.

The following anecdote was provided by Marie Myung-Ok Lee who teaches at Brown University. She is the author of the novel Somebody’s Daughter and is a winner of the Richard Margolis award for social justice reporting. “My son J, who is nine years old, has autism. He’s also had two serious surgeries for a spinal cord tumor and has an inflammatory bowel condition, all of which may be causing him pain, if he could tell us.” […]

“Since we started him on his ‘special tea,’ J’s face, which is sometimes a mask of pain, has softened. He smiles more. For the last year, his individual education plan
at his special-needs school was full of blanks because he spent his whole day in an irritated, frustrated mess. Now, April’s report shows real progress, including “two community outings with the absence of aggressions.”

O’Shaughnessy’s—A Novel Approach to the Symptomatic Treatment of Autism

Heart Health & Diabetes

Graduate Entry Medicine & Health, Royal Derby Hospital—Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?

Cannabidiol (CBD) has beneficial effects in disorders as wide ranging as diabetes, Huntington’s disease, cancer and colitis. Accumulating evidence now also suggests that CBD is beneficial in the cardiovascular system. CBD has direct actions on isolated arteries, causing both acute and time-dependent vasorelaxation. In vitro incubation with CBD enhances the vasorelaxant responses in animal models of impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. CBD protects against the vascular damage caused by a high glucose environment, inflammation or the induction of type 2 diabetes in animal models and reduces the vascular hyperpermeability associated with such environments.

A common theme throughout these studies is the anti- inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect of CBD. […] Similarly, in a different model of ischaemia-reperfusion, CBD has been shown to reduce infarct size and increase blood flow in animal models of stroke, sensitive to 5HT(1A)

Schizophrenia

Department CNS Diseases Research—Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?

Given the need to reduce the side effects of marketed antipsychotics, and their weak efficacy on some schizophrenic symptoms, cannabinoids have been suggested as a possible alternative treatment for schizophrenia. CBD, a non- psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis Sativa plant, has been receiving growing attention for its anti-psychotic-like properties. Evidence suggests that CBD can ameliorate positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Behavioural and neurochemical models suggest that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical anti-psychotic drugs and a clinical trial reported that this cannabinoid is a well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia.